arta-grafica-universala

Universal Graphic Art

The universal graphics collection is the most numerous in the artistic heritage of MNAM. Its collection includes over 13,000 works from the 15th century. XVI-XX. It was largely set up between 1950 and 1990, as a result of transfers of works from some museums in Moscow and St. Petersburg, followed by new acquisitions and donations from private individuals. The first works that formed the basis of the foundation of the universal graphics collection were those signed by the artist Pavel Shillingovski, donated by the author by will MNAM and entered the museum in 1947.

This collection includes works from several countries in Europe and Asia: France, Germany, Italy, Russia, England, the Netherlands, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Japan , Mongolia, China.

The authors approached in their works all artistic genres: portrait, landscape, static nature, genre scenes. The collection is also characterized by the vast diversity of techniques and materials used to make them. Among the most common techniques we find woodcut, etching, lithography, chisel engraving, followed by mezzotint, punched engraving, linocut and more.

Among the signatories of these works are Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), Harmensz van Rejn Rebrandt (1606-1669), Auguste Renoir (1841-1919), Paul Gavarni (1804-1866), Adolph Menzel (1815-1905), followed by Kilian Bartholomew the Elder, sec. XVII, Johann Müller (1759-1805), Auguste Lemaitre (1797-18 ..), Marie Alexandre Alophe (1813-1863), Ivan Şişkin (1832-1898), Piotr Boreli (1829-1898), Vladimir Favorski (1886- 1964), Antonio Tempesta (1555-1630), Francišek Smiglewici (1745-1807), Carl Harman Pfeifer (1769-1829) and others. a.

A special place in the artistic heritage of MNAM is occupied by Japanese engraving. The over 300 works dated to sec. XVII-XX, were made by artists who later asserted themselves universally, today being recognized as prominent figures in the history of art: Ando Kwagetsudo (1671-1743), Kiyonaga Torii (1752-1815), Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806), Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1864) Ando Hiroshige (1797-1850), Taiso Eshitoshi (1839-1892), Toyohara Kunichika (1835-1900) ş. a.

The Japanese print, as a major plastic genre, appeared in the 15th century. XVII. Ishikawa Moronobu (1625-1694) is the one who, in parallel with the book illustrations, launched the first "independent" engravings, in series, printed in black and white. He is the first artist to open his own workshop, training apprentices. The woodcut is done manually by three people. Later, in 1765, Suzuki Harunobu, by superimposing 7-8-10 colors, became the father of the polychrome print. Thus, the ukiyo-e movement is constituted - "image of the floating world". The most special achievements of this movement are the engraving ones. In the city of Edo (today's Tokyo) there was a neighborhood of great publishers of popular books who, in the mid-seventeenth century, had the idea to use the woodcut process to multiply the paintings and later distribute them at an affordable price. The favorite themes are those of everyday life: festivities, holidays, scenes from courtesan houses, portraits of beautiful women (bijin-ga), portraits of kabuki theater actors (yakusha-e), landscapes. The representatives of the ukiyo-e movement were the ones who gave expressiveness and grace to the Japanese stamp and who created an authentic, vivid and fascinating image of the Edo era.

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